Khamis, 12 Julai 2018


HFMD, penyakit kaki tangan dan mulut,HFDM decease,HDFM
Infographic source: Positive Parenting, Malaysia Paediatric Association 

What is HFMD? 
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infection caused by viruses from the enterovirus group which includes enteroviruses, coxsackie viruses, echoviruses and polioviruses.

Among these viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV 71) and coxsackie virus A16 are the most common pathogens. 

mouth,hfmd,penyakit mulut hfmd

Who is at risk?

Anyone can get HFMD.

However, children younger than 5 years old are most likely to get HFMD, particularly those who attend childcare centers, nurseries and kindergartens.

Signs and symptoms of HFMD 
HFMD begins with symptoms of fever, feeling sick and poor appetite. One to two days later, painful ulcers develop in the mouth. Some children have red spots developing on their palms or soles, which may turn into blisters. This skin rash may sometimes occur on the knees, elbows or buttock of the child. It is usually not itchy.
Due to the poor appetite and painful mouth ulcers, the child may refuse to drink and will be at risk of dehydration.

In saying that, the symptoms vary among infected children. Some children develop the typical signs and symptoms, others may just have the skin rash or mouth ulcers, whilst some infected children experience no signs and symptoms at all .

hand disease hfmd,penyakit tapak tangan pada bayi

How does HFMD spread?
HFMD is a highly contagious disease. The viruses that cause HFMD can be found in the nose and throat, fluid in the blisters and faeces of an infected person.
The viruses spread from the infected person to another through
Coughing or sneezing
Close contact
Contact with the blister fluid or faeces
Sharing of eating utensils or personal belongings such as towels, toothbrush
Touching of contaminated surfaces or objects, eg. toys

 A person with HFMD is most infectious during the first week of
 contracting the illness.

How is HFMD diagnosed?

Although specific laboratory tests to detect the viruses are available, HFMD is usually diagnosed clinically by looking at the signs and symptoms of the disease.
Laboratory tests are not required in most instances.

How is HFMD treated?

HFMD is treated symptomatically.
Because of the fact that it is a viral infection, there is no specific medication for the disease. The infection usually resolves after 7-10 days when immunity develops in the body.
Healthcare providers prescribe antipyretics and pain killers to manage the fever and pain in the mouth.
It is important to encourage the child to take up adequate fluids during the course of illness.

How to recognize the symptoms of deterioration or when should I be concerned?

sick boy,demam kepialu,demam panas,deman tak kebah,demam luarbiasa

Rarely, an infected person can develop viral meningitis or other severe infection pertaining the heart or brain.  If so, the child may experience these symptoms:
Headache, giddiness or stiffness of the neck
Irritability, drowsiness or disorientation
Fits or abnormal jerky movements
Fast breathing or turning blue
A child with HFMD demonstrating any of these symptoms needs to be admitted to the hospital immediately.

Can HFMD be prevented? 
At this moment, there are no specific medication or
vaccine for HFMD. Hence, prevention is important to
reduce the risk of getting it.
HFMD can be prevented by these measures:
Keep your hands clean by frequently washing your
    hands thoroughly, especially after contacting a person with HFMD or soiled objects
Avoid close contact with a person with HFMD
Avoid sharing of eating utensils or other personal belongings
Avoid touching the eyes, nose or mouth after contact with a person with HFMD
Keep your environment clean by frequent cleaning and disinfect the frequently
   touched areas when someone has HFMD

How to keep other children safe? 
Outbreaks of HFMD has commonly occurred in childcare centers, kindergartens and schools. If your child has HFMD, you can help to protect other children from getting the same illness by:
Informing the childcare center, kindergarten or school
Isolate your child from childcare centers, kindergartens, school, playgrounds and other public places
Keeping one’s belongings clean and not sharing eating utensils or other personal belongings
Frequently disinfecting frequently touched surfaces or objects with diluted bleach.


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